federated cloud computing pdf

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Management (BSM) is a management strategy that allows businesses to, align their IT management with their high-level business goals. In this work, from the identified limitations of current cloud market and case study on existing model for reverse auction in cloud, one can observe that coalition of small cloud providers with common interoperability standard in reverse auction is a feasible solution to encourage cloud market for adapting reverse auction-based resource allocation. The RESERVOIR monitoring service supports the asynchronous, running inside the VEEs. supporting opportunistic placement of VEEs at a remote site. To address the challenges and deficiencies in the current state of the art, we propose a modular, extensible cloud architecture with intrinsic support for business service management and the federation of clouds. The Virtual Execution Environment Manager (VEEM), The Virtual Execution Environment Host (VEEH), . For example, to achieve scale and fault tolerance, design principles from cloud computing can be applied to create compute clusters at the edge that are managed by the cloud, an approach called “federated computing.” In this talk, Krishnamoorthy explores a range of edge computing system architectures, with a focus on federated computing. At the, same time, user applications should be allowed to scale down facing decreasing, demand. Execution of scientific workflows on federated multi-cloud infrastructures Daniele Lezzi1, Francesc Lordan1, Roger Rafanell1, and Rosa M. Badia1,2 1 Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Centro Nacional de Supercomputaci´on (BSC-CNS) {daniele.lezzi, francesc.lordan, roger.rafanell, rosa.m.badia}@bsc.es, Cloud, computing services as offered by a federation of infrastructure providers is, expected to offer any user application of any size the ability to quickly scale up, its application by unrestricted magnitude and approach Internet scale. For example, IP addresses used across the host's physical network, are exposed to guest virtual machines. Its main objective is to introduce the concept of Federation-as-a-Service (FaaS) and the SUNFISH platform. However, this requires substantial effort and advanced features of the unde, lying architecture. In the middle tier, there are two types of components: multiple stateful. application might have from a cloud computing provider. INTRODUCTION The recent development in deep learning has revolution-alized many application domains, such as image processing, natural language processing, and video analytics [1]. Assuming the workload stays within bounds, the fundamental limitation on scalability for this approach is the number of tables the database can handle. From the use case discussed in the previous section, we derived the following. Using a number of simple optimizations, we show how an unmodified guest under the KVM hypervisor can reach throughput of 5.5Gbps for TCP and 6.6Gbps for UDP for encapsulated traffic, compared to 280Mbps and 510Mbps respectively when using the default guest and host networking stacks. The federation of cloud resources allows clients to optimize enterprise IT service delivery. The VEEM is, free to place and move VEEs anywhere, even on the remote sites (subject, to overall cross-site agreements), as long as the placement satisfies the, constraints. Cloud computing has revolutionized the IT world by its benefits. Thus, the same, resolves all the security problems with the underlying, is addressed via the dynamic configuration of network, has to be performed and secure protocols has to. To grow beyond this capacity, cloud computing providers, able to form federations of providers such that they can collaborate and share, their resources. To address the, The Anatomy of Cloud InfrastructuresDistributed Management of Virtual InfrastructuresScheduling Techniques for Advance Reservation of CapacityCapacity Management to meet SLA CommitmentsConclusions and Future WorkAcknowledgmentsReferences, Cloud computing is increasingly gaining inroads among a variety of organizational users. For these, move their computing into the cloud, they need warranties from the cloud, computing provider that their stuff is completely isolated from others. • allows the user to choose freely among a broader … Which operations are, required may be related to the amount of information that is, remote sites; access to more information may also increase the possibility and, In this section, a number of federation scenarios are presented, ranging from a, baseline case to a full-featured federation. be simultaneously reduced compared to cloud-based Federated Learning. This scenario offers, computing federation with support for site collaboration in terms of frame-, work agreements without particularly high technological, underlying architecture in terms of networking support. must be able to monitor VEEs and their applications running at a remote site. Since the emergence of Cloud Computing, the access to computing, storage and networking resources have never been so cheap and simple, which contributed to increase the hype around this paradigm. stream <> All the interfaces (SMI, are affected by the same issues, but we have to underline that the solutions in, some cases are different. Second, the taxonomy of cloud-based system models from the aspect of multiple clouds' interoperability is explained. , related to the relations between VEEs; and second, scenario, federation uses framework agreement (FA), scenario of the VEEM. As a result, enterprises looking at transforming their IT, operations to cloud-based technologies face a non-incremental and, To address these issues, we present in this chapter a model for business-driven, federation of cloud computing providers, where each provider can buy. Just as we can power a variety of devices, ranging from a simple light bulb to complex machinery, by plugging them into the wall, today we can satisfy, by The cloud has all essential components to deliver compelling deep learning capabilities thus offering services for building applications based on cognitive computing, predictive analytics, intelligent Internet of Things, interactive personal assistants and bots. Because of this impact, they should be billed as. All the. They specify a set of constraints that must be held when, the VEE is created, so they can be seen as some kind of “contour conditions”, that determine the domain that can be used by the placement algorithm run at. Fig. There are significant gaps between the capabilities of virtualization and the cloud, if you use virtualization technology to improve utilization of your computing resources, you may have heard that virtualization accomplishes the same goals as cloud computing. Considering the VMI interfaces, the RESERVOIR, system administrator has the full capability to manage security policies and to, apply them on both the sides (endpoints of site A and site B). The hypervisor (VEEH) uses the network, storage, CPU, and ram (host). These scenarios, requirements on the underlying architecture, and we use the features presented. Future Challenges in Federated Cloud Computing . help, this work would not have been possible. (c) Cloud providers differentiate from each in terms of cost and trust level; for example, while a public cloud maybe cheap, companies will be reluctant to put in there sensitive services. We focus on cloud computing and cloud robotic technologies [2], which can enhance robotic systems by fa-cilitating the process of sharing trajectories, control policies and outcomes of collective robot learning. Since then, cloud computing has been evolved from static clients to dynamic ones from software to services. distributed DoS), flooding, buffer overflow, p2p-attacks, instead there are: VEEH, VEEM (in-bridge config-, can be considered a trusted area. center who face different and fluctuating workloads. New, specific collaboration models among service providers are needed for enabling effective service collaboration, allowing the process of serving consumers to be more efficient. x��=ks7��]��0���-k2� �ȥ\%�qι��XJr[��E�$nhI! RESERVOIR, loosely coupled stack reference architecture should promote a va. innovative approaches to support cloud computing. The results presented in this chapter show that MAS-Scout, which is based on the Scouting principles, can be satisfactorily used to automate cloud computing needs. The VEE Host Interface, (VHI) will support plugging-in of new virtualization platforms (e.g., hypervi-, sors), without requiring VEEM recompilation or restart. This chapter describes the similarity of intelligent clouds and multi-agent systems. Businesses around the world are therefore giving enormous attention, to virtualized SOI technology nowadays [4]. Lack of Interoperability Among Cloud Providers. The, support. From birth to death, every human being leaves a long medical history consisting of laboratory exams, records of medical consultations, records, and hospitalizations, as well as any other important information that affects the patient's health. Cloud computing is still evolving. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Rather, they provide more computing options for your organization’s needs as a tandem. We discuss these issues within the context of the RESERVOIR Service Cloud computing project. Furthermore, virtual applications need to, be completely location free and allowed to migrate in part or as a whole between, sites. The Reservoir project is motivated by the vision of implementing an architecture that would enable providers of cloud infrastructure to dynamically partner with each other to create a seemingly infinite pool of IT resources while fully preserving their individual autonomy in making technological and business management decisions. The number of DIs can be changed while the system is. effectiveness, they also ensure optimized use of system and network resources, reduced carbon footprints, and simplify management of their underlying, resources. In order to overcome this apparent, contradiction, RESERVOIR introduces a novel federated migration channel to, transfer a VEE from one host to another host without directly addressing the, destination host. While cloud computing holds a lot of promise for enterprise computing. It receives Service Manifests, negotiates pricing, and handles, billing. IEEE eLearning Library Cloud Federation and Federated Access Control Transcript pg. Cloud computing services are, by definition, hosted by a provider that will, simultaneously host applications from many different users. We begin by arguing that network virtualization is best done by hypervisors, not switches. Virtualization is not the cloud. Next, we address the evaluation needs of different Checkpointing approaches in the Cloud Computing by developing a new simulator. Such mappings are challenging to create because enterprise applications allow tenants to extend the base schema, e.g., for vertical industries or geographic regions. Since data can be effectively considered as the new oil of the digital economy, new capabilities for an intelligent processing are required. Two kinds of deployment restrictions are envisioned: First, between organizations to set the terms and conditions for federation. Requests are handled by the SAP Web dispatcher. challenges and deficiencies in the current state of the art, we propose a modular, extensible cloud architecture with intrinsic support for business service management and the federation of clouds. At the same time, the security privacy and independence of the federation. At the same time, the Reservoir approach aims to achieve a very ambitious goal: creating a foundation for next-generation enterprise-grade cloud computing. Each can be further divided into federated clouds, hybrid clouds, multi-clouds and aggregated service by broker. FaaS is the new and innovative cloud federation service proposed by the SUNFISH project. On the other hand, the ability to implement federated network service with virtual application, network (VANs), a novel overlay network that enables virtual network services, across subnets and across administrative boundaries [8,9]. evaluation to take place is the admission control of the policy engine. The SM calculate this vector based on the FA established with the other sites. Such scalability although depended on the internals of the user, application is prime driver for cloud computing because it help users to better, Before enterprises move their mission critical applications to the cloud, cloud, computing providers will need to develop the mechanisms to ensure quality of, service (QoS) and proper support for service-level agreements (SLAs). INNOVAR PARA … We address this challenge in this thesis throughout our five contributions. the optimal placement of VEEs into VEE Hosts subject to constraints, determined by the Service Manager. The goal is to facilitate an open, service-based online economy in which resources and services are transparently provisioned and managed across clouds on an on-demand basis at competitive costs with high-quality service. In a federated cloud environment, there is one or more number of cloud service providers who share their servers to service the user request. Each component of such service applications, executes in a dedicated VEE. Each RESERVOIR site has a logical representation with three different layers, but these layers can be compounded by one or more hardware compo, Figure 15.5 gives an overview of these entities and relative mapping with a, simplified view of the hardware. The, internal threats related to these phases can be classified as follows: (1) threats. ensuring the integrity of the cloud services. When a user is authenticated in a federated service, every other service in that group will respect that authentication. But in the current market of cloud, reverse auction (a mechanism to implement dynamic pricing) is not getting the attention from professionals that it deserves. The Reservoir model and architecture for open federated cloud computing The main reason for this sharing is to keep the TCO per tenant at a, virtual execution environment (represented as rounded rectangles); (b) the large. virtual machines. Moreover, the number of, virtual execution environments must be dynamically and seamlessly, optimize alignment of infrastructure resources management with the, In this section we unravel a set of principles that enable Internet scale cloud, computing services. (b) Applications running in this cloud of, clouds should be unaware of location; that is, virtual local networks are needed for the, inter-application components to communicate. More specifically, the document describes all the components forming the platform, the offered functionalities and their high-level interactions underlying the main FaaS functionalities. In addition, we develop from the requirement the basic, principles that we believe are the cornerstone of future cloud computing, offerings. SAP systems are used for a variety of business applications that differ by, version and functionality [such as customer relationship management, and enterprise resource planning (ERP)]. component and the storage system are shared between multiple tenants. The key, aspect of BSM is service-level agreement (SLA) management. However, because a person's lifestyle and health are continuously changing, most of this medical information is distributed among different institutions, cities, and even countries where the specific processes were undertaken, in possession of health insurance providers or even hidden inside a drawer of the patient's home. enterprise-grade federated cloud computing. Furthermore, VMI’s suppo, VEEM-to-VEEM communication simplifies cloud federation by limiting the, horizontal interoperability to one layer of the stack. actual usage during the active time interval. The SM should be able to include as part of the VEE metadata a, “price hint vector” consisting on a sequence of numbers, each one representing. Protocols like NFS, SAMBA, and CIFS are not secure. Cloud Federation Tobias Kurze , Markus Klems y, David Bermbach , Alexander Lenkz, Stefan Taiyand Marcel Kunze Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany %���� In, Section 15.4 we will present a model for federated cloud computing infra-, structure and provide definitions of the concepts used and in Section 15.5 we, describe the seurity considerations for such system. PDF | This paper discusses the security of data in cloud computing. New specific collaboration models among service providers are needed for enabling effective service collaboration, allowing the process of serving consumers to be more efficient. In order to overcome the performance hit related to traffic encapsulation, we analyze the unique case of virtual machine traffic encapsulation, exploring the problems arising from dual networking stacks --- the guest's and the host's. This paper describes a new schema-mapping technique for multi-tenancy called Chunk Folding, where the logical ta- bles are vertically partitioned into chunks that are folded to- gether into different physical multi-tenant tables and joined as needed. In the long, term, scalability problems may be expected to worsen as cloud providers, serve an increasing number of on-line services, each accessed by massive, technologies have not been designed with interoperability in mind. To get good consolidation, certain ta- bles must be shared among tenants and certain tables must be mapped into fixed generic structures such as Universal and Pivot Tables, which can degrade performance. PDF | On Mar 22, 2017, prathap R and others published A STUDY OF SECURITY CHALLENGES IN FEDERATED CLOUD COMPUTING | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate resources to offer some service. The provisioning of the resources. Federated Cloud Computing Environment for Malaria Fighting Vilnius April-11-2011 Aurelio Rodriguez, Carlos Fernández, Ruben Díez, Hugo Gutierrez and Álvaro Simón. The RESERVOIR architecture [3], shown in Figure 15.4, identifies the, major functional components needed within an IP to fully support the cloud, computing paradigm. Federation, in its most basic form, is a group of services that agree to respect each other’s statement of trust. main requirements from a cloud computing infrastructure: provisioning of complex service applications based on a formal contract, specifying theinfrastructure SLAs. Finally, future direction of cloud-based content sharing is suggested. But just in case you missed them, or this is the first paragraph about the cloud you’ve ever read, here’s a quick breakdown: You don’t have to buy lots of hardware. This can provide a catalogue of services and resources available as well as makes applications interoperable and portable. The VEE Management Interface (VMI) simplifies the, introduction of different and independent IT optimization strategies without, disrupting other layers or peer VEEMs. infrastructure without exposing internal details to their customers or partners. Some of them are listed below: … policies and via virtual circuits that involve routers and switches. The chapter also includes details on the way in which services and service providers are clearly defined in this particular system. The document concludes by outlining the main implementation strategies towards the actual implementation of the proposed cloud federation solution. So then, resources must be highly customizable. (a) All components run in the same, Managing thousands of different service components that comprise a, Consolidating many applications on the same infrastructure, thereby, Guaranteeing the individual SLAs of the many customers of the da, The cloud should dynamically adjust resource alloca-, is a set of software components that work collectively, —fully isolated runtime environments that abstract, is the only component within an IP that interacts. Cloud domains providing a service analogous to that of interoperating grid resources created for a similar goal by research institutions using gridbrokersinthe gridcomputing framework. federated cloud (cloud federation): A federated cloud (also called cloud federation ) is the deployment and management of multiple external and internal cloud computing services to match business needs. Advanced features such as virtual networks across site boundaries are also not, supported. The firewall located next to the router increa, worthiness. Cloud computing addresses the use of scalable and often virtualized resources. Index Terms—Mobile Edge Computing, Federated Learning, Edge Learning I. 15.3.1 Federation All cloud computing providers, regardless of how big they are, have a finite capacity. All rights reserved. However, SPs do not own these resources; them with a seemingly infinite pool of computational, netwo, to achieve a common goal. The continuous optimization process, is driven by a site-specific programmable utility function. One interesting feature to take into account is the, agreement and when opportunistic placement has been performed. The monitoring, framework is agnostic to type and source of data being monit, No further functionality is required for the. The next big evolution for the internet is Cloud Computing, where everyone from individuals to major corporations and governments move their data storage and processing into remote data centres. The pricing information included in, the FA is used by the SM to calculate the cost of resources running in remote, systems (based on the aggregated usage information that it received from the, local VEEM) and correlate this information with the charges issued by those, remote sites. We then propose a method for plugging the network-related leaks by ensuring that the virtual network traffic is encapsulated inside a host envelope prior to transmission across the underlying physical network. First of all, just in the case of the power grid, interoperability between cloud, providers and standardization are a fundamental need. On the other hand, no additional functionality is needed from, ability to deploy a VEE in the remote site, so it will nee, communicate with the remote cloud by invoking the public API. Researchers, developers, and companies have made efforts to develop mobile, Web, desktop, and enterprise e-health applications raising the importance of interoperability and data exchange between e-health applications and Health Information Systems (HIS). A federation is the union of several smaller parts that perform a common action. According to a survey results published in, newspaper, cloud computing security was the foremost concern for the year, 2009 [6]. companies will be reluctant to put in there sensitive services. The architecture is centered on proactive defense. Technical Report, University of California, Berkeley, 2009. Challenges in Hybrid and Federated Cloud Computing 2/30 Instead of transferring the VEE directly to the destination, host, it passes through proxies at the source site and destination site, solving the, As previously reported, virtualized service-oriented infrastructures provide, computing as a commodity for today’s competitive businesses. virtual application network (VAN) as part of the virtual host interface API. ments are not supported by the architecture, or if there is not enough spare, capacity even including the framework agreements, a site may choose to, perform opportunistic placement. Good performance is obtained by mapping the most heavily-uti- lized parts of the logical schemas into the conventional ta- bles and the remaining parts into Chunk Tables that match their structure as closely as possible. As cloud computing becomes more predominant, the problem of scalability has become critical for cloud computing providers. Site configuration, topology, and so on, are not. knowledge. (1) The offered, virtual network service is fully isolated, (2) it enables sharing of hosts, network, devices, and physical connections, and (3) hides network related. At the center of this emerging intelligent cloud is deep learning, which is undoubtedly the most disruptive technology of this decade, supported by the rise of powerful computing and storage environments. As customers consume managed services offered by the cloud platform, they generate a gold mine of additional data for cloud providers. We also provide an empirical evaluation of our solution, demonstrating its viability and compliance with requirements. This situation is further aggravated by … We first present the RESERVOIR architecture itself, then we introduce the issues of service monitoring in a federated. However, currently VM migration between hosts require that the source, destination hypervisors know each other’s addresses and transfer a VM directly, from the source host to the destination host. Common practice is to map multiple single-tenant logical schemas in the applica- tion to one multi-tenant physical schema in the database. It is based on servicelevel agreements that provide external users with requested services. The “pay as you go” billing model, applies charges for the actually used resources per unit time. competition and locks consumers to a single vendor. 3 0 obj collaborate by sharing their resources while keeping thick walls in between them; that is, each is an independent autonomous entity. It also explains why intelligent clouds are useful and important. Security, concerns are multiplying with an increasing number of reported cloud comput-, ing incidents and other on-line services incidents such as the Kaminsky, DNS vulnerability [5]. IntroductionA Typical Use CaseThe Basic Principles of Cloud ComputingA Model for Federated Cloud ComputingSecurity ConsiderationsSummary and Conclusions It is the bridge between two areas, and it allows the exch, among the zones. not supported, nor does it resize the VEEs once placed at the remote site. To this end, Reservoir could leverage and extend the advantages of virtualization and embed autonomous management in the infrastructure. Moreover, VEEHs must support transparent VEE migration to any, compatible VEEH within the federated cloud, regardless of site location, The layered design stresses the use of standard, open, and generic protocols, and interfaces to support vertical and horizontal interoperability between, layers. Only recently have they begun to address the requirements of enterprise solutions, such as support for infrastructure service-level agreements. 2 0 obj At the same time, the Reservoir approach aims to achieve a very ambitious goal: creating a foundation for next-generation enterprise-grade cloud computing. between sites. The capability of using virtual, resources across the Internet is making up throughout a new kind of, computation infrastructures. Model for federated cloud computing: (a) Different cloud providers collaborate by sharing their resources while keeping thick walls in between them; that is, each is an independent autonomous entity. Some threats, related to communication, can be classified, in-the-middle, TCP hijacking (spoofing), service manifest attacks (malicious, manifest/SLA format injection), migration and security policies and identity, so on. To implement this type of hybrid solution, identifying those needs and comparing them against costs should be the first step in assessing what would work best for you. Notably missing is (a) support for hot migration and (b), cross-site virtual network functionality. Survey of Cloud-Based Content Sharing Research: Taxonomy of System Models and Case Examples, A Scouting-Based Multi-Agent System Model to Deal with Service Collaboration in Cloud Computing, Feasibility of Providers' Coalition in Reverse Auction-Based Cloud Market, Techniques de Checkpointing pour la Tolérance aux Fautes dans le Cloud Computing, A Federation of Cognitive Cloud Services for Trusting Data Sources, Next Generation Cloud Computing: New Trends and Research Directions, Sharing medical information by means of using intelligent agents and cloud computing, Intelligent Clouds: By Means of Using Multi-Agent Systems Environments, Interconnected Cloud Computing Environments, Plugging the hypervisor abstraction leaks caused by virtual networking, Multi-tenant databases for software as a service, The RESERVOIR Model and architecture for open federated cloud computing, Above the clouds: A berkeley view of cloud computing, Monitoring Services in a Federated Cloud -The RESERVOIR Experience, In book: Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms (pp.391 - 411). Similarly, interconnected Clouds, also called Inter-Cloud, can be viewed as a natural evolution of Cloud computing. The, does not, such as framework agreements, cold migration, and retention of, public IP addresses. The Reservoir project is motivated by the vision of implementing an architecture that would enable providers of cloud infrastructure to dynamically partner with each other to create a seemingly infinite pool of IT resources while fully preserving their individual autonomy in making technological and business management decisions. environment, together with the specific solutions that have been devised for RESERVOIR. endobj The service provider may then choose among RESERVOIR cloud, providers, knowing that they share a common language to express their, business requirements. The landscape of cloud computing has significantly changed over the last decade. Several challenges are being raised from the adoption of this computational paradigm including security, privacy, and federation. The new tenant runs through a series, of configuration questions and uploads master data items (e.g., product, catalog and customer lists). Different implementations of each layer will be able to interact with, each other. It gives detailed descriptions on how to incorporate intelligent abilities such as learning, negotiation, collaboration, and communication to cloud systems by using IAs. Therefore, aiming to enhance the availability of improved medical services at reduced costs, modern information technology is being increasingly used in the healthcare sector. a utility vision, we need to offer cloud computing users full independence. members must be maintained to allow competing providers to federate. Recent studies show the benefits in utilizing multiple Clouds and present attempts for the realization of Inter-Cloud or federated Cloud environment. To better explain the role of each component, it can be useful to evaluate chronologically all the phases necessary to execute a, virtual execution environment (VEEH); once all the requirements from the, VEEM are received, it downloads the VM image from the SP, stores the image, into the NAS, performs the setup configuration, and executes the VM. Ignacio M. Llorente Project Director . This model for enabling effective service in cloud systems is based on a recent research proposal related to defining a collaboration mechanism by means of Scout Movement. However. The emerging cloud-computing paradigm is rapidly gaining momentum as an alternative to traditional IT (information technology). Most modern operating systems have support, for being suspended, which includes saving all RAM contents to disk and later, restoring the runtime state to its prior state. systems and to derive from them general requirements that such, AN ARCHITECTURE FOR FEDERATED CLOUD COMPUTING. In the full-featured federation scenario the live migration feature offered by this, scenario will need to be supported also in the VHI API. ), network storage (NAS, databases, through the SMI and VEEM interfaces, since they fall into the same cases of, external threats. An SAP system is a typical three-tier system (see Figure 15.2) as follows: dialog instances (DIs) and a single central instance (CI) that performs, central services such as application-level locking, messaging, and registra, tion of DIs. The conception of a comprehensive security model, requires a realistic threat model. The applications are offered as a service to external, customers, or, alternatively, the data center is operated by the IT department of. Virtual execution environment, downloaded from any generic, expose the infrastructure toward back door threats, spoofing threats and, malicious code execution (virus, worm, and Trojan horse). In this work we propose a cloud based federation of cognitive services aiming to support intelligent applications to trust unknown data sources. database schema [2]. We refer, to the virtualized computational resources, alongside the virtualization layer, and all the management enablement components, as the, With these concepts in mind, we can proceed to define a reference, architecture for federated cloud computing. linked to authentication/communication of SPs and other RESERVOIR site; (2) threats related to misbehavior of service resource allocation—to alter, agreement (manifest) during the translation between service manager and, VEEM malicious component on SM; (3) data export control legi, an international cloud or between two clouds; (4) threats linked to, command for placement of VEEs and compromising the data integrity of, the distributed file system (NFS, SAMBA, CIFS); (5) storage data compromis-, ing (fake VEE image); (6) threats linked to compromise data privacy; (7) threats, linked to the underlying hypervisor and OS (VEE could break hypervisor/, underlying OS security and access other VEE); and (8) data partitioning, To avoid any fraudulent access, the VEEH has to verify. databases and communicate asynchronously by message with each other. In the same line, the federation can offer, a directly supported feature; but even if virtualized networks are not avail, it may still be possible to maintain public IP addresses by manipulating routing, Information disclosure within the federation, The sites in the federation may provide information to different degrees (for, instance, the information exchange between sites may be larger within the same, administrative domain than outside it). Overall, this stifles. Following these steps, the tenant is up, running, typically using a trial version. These architectures are anticipated to impact areas, such as connecting people and devices, data-intensive computing, the service space and self-learning systems. We conclude by discussing on future directions and trends towards the holistic approach in this regard. Additionally, VEEM need to be able to signal the hypervisor to restore the VEE state and, advance resource reservation support, the policy engine must be capable of, networks for the VEEs has to be achieved using the functionality offered by the. services will be able to free resources and focuses on their business. With respect to these objectives, the document proposes the high-level architecture of the SUNFISH platform: the software architecture that permits realising a FaaS federation. Model for federated cloud computing: (a) Different cloud providers collaborate by sharing their resources while keeping thick walls in between them; that is, each is an independent autonomous entity. Abstract—Cloud Computing is becoming one of the most important topics in the IT world. Just as in other utilities, where we get service without knowing the internals, of the utility provider and with standard equipment not specific to any provider, (e.g., telephones), for cloud computing services to really fulfill the computing as. We conclude with a, As a representative of an enterprise-grade application, we have chosen to. However, the salient, features of these virtualization infrastructures give rise to a number of security, concerns. A special variation that deserves mentioning is when the data center serves, an on-demand, Software as a Service (SaaS) setup, where customers are, external and where each customer (tenant) gets the same base version of the, application. It is possible for, each RESERVOIR site to select its own security framework; howeve, case of communication between SM and SP (SMI), the RESERVOIR cloud, has to use a common security framework shared with many different partners. We end with a review of our experience in this area by showing a use-case application executing on RESERVOIR, which is responsible for the computational prediction of organic crystal structures. Not only have more providers and service offerings crowded the space, but also cloud infrastructure that was traditionally limited to single provider data centers is now evolving. To be used in Cloud Computing, this technique needs to be fully transparent and has to deal with the highly heterogeneous nature of the applications which are deployed in this environment. Certain SAP applications are, composed of several loosely coupled systems. The database's "meta-data budget" is divided between application-specific conventional tables and a large fixed set of generic structures called Chunk Tables. (b) Applications running in this cloud of clouds should be unaware of location; that is, virtual local networks are needed for the inter-application components to communicate. The goal is to facilitate an open, service-based online economy in which resources and services are transparently provisioned and managed across clouds on an on-demand basis at competitive costs with high-quality service. Last, but not least, the need to build trust is essential and probably. in previous section as the basis for differentiating among them. 4.1 Architecture Description The virtual execution environment host refers to the set of components managing the, In summary, the key challenges in all these use cases from the point of view, variety of service applications executed by thousands of virtual execution, environments, on top of a complex infrastructure that also includes, increasing HW utilization and optimizing power consumption, while. RESERVOIR’s separation principle requires that each RESERVOIR site be, autonomous entity. The spectrum of challenges and obstacles that the Inter-Cloud realization is faced with are covered, a taxonomy of them is provided and fitting enablers that tackle each challenge are identified. The federation of cloud resources allows a client to choose the best cloud services provider, in terms of flexibility, cost and availability of services, to meet a particular business or technological need within their organization. N S. MONTERO, YARON WOLFSTHAL, KENNETH NAGIN, LARS. Frame-, work agreements are negotiated and defined by individuals, but they, encoded at the end in the service manager (SM)—in particular, within the, business information data base (BIDB). Also, cold migration is needed; therefore the VEEM needs the ability to signal the, hypervisor to save the VEE state (this is part of the VEEM life-cycle module). The figure shows two RESERVOIR enhances the standard VM migration capability, typically available in every modern hypervisor with support for environments, in which the source and the destination hosts do not share storage; typic. Using these features as a, base, a number of federation scenarios are defined, comprised of subsets of this, The first feature to consider is the framework agreement suppo, work agreements, as defined in the previous section, may either be supported by, the architecture or not. needed. Virtual machines are of very little use if they cannot access the underlying physical network. Utility computing, a concept envisioned back in the 1960s, is finally becoming a reality. 1 is an example of what is meant by a federated Cloud structure mediated by brokers. As a consequence of the independence principle, all cloud services need to be, encapsulated and generalized such that users will be able to acquire equivalent. PDF | The emerging cloud-computing paradigm is rapidly gaining momentum as an alternative to traditional IT (information technology). Service Manager), VEEM is responsible for the federation of remote sites. To this end, Reservoir could leverage and extend the advantages of virtualization and embed autonomous management in the infrastructure. For a given application type, the SAP, system components consist of generic parts customized, parts custom-coded for a specific installation. Federations of clouds may be constructed in various ways, with dispar, feature sets offered by the underlying implementation architecture. Hot or live migration does not, allow for system downtime, and it works by transferring the runtime state while, belonging to a service are potentially connected to virtual networks, should this. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The Service Management Interface (SMI) with its service manifest, exposes a standardized interface into the RESERVOIR cloud for service, providers. The research leading to these results is partially supported by the European, Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2001-2013) under grant. The same contract should be reused to, provision multiple instances of the same application for different tenants, tion parameters (memory, CPU, network bandwidth, storage) of indivi-, dual virtual execution environments seamlessly. interfaces could be instead exposed to the following attacks: These kind of threats are aimed toward provoking a. inability to perform ordinary functions. apart from the features described for the baseline scenario. All these aspects require a comprehensive review of the state of the art, including ongoing projects and studies in the area. virtual resources at different providers. The document defines the functionalities of FaaS, its governance and precise objectives. VMI interfaces, and VHI internal interface. endobj <> To avoid fake VEE image loading and do not compromise data privacy. The EU based EGI Federated Cloud is Just as in the early days of the, power grid, nobody could have imagined fully automated robotic production, plants, or the high-definition TVs in our houses, today we can’t really, what will happen once the computing utility dream becomes a reality. This area shares all the hardware compo-, of SPs and other RESERVOIR sites. Federated Cloud: There are a number of bene ts in bringing together di erent cloud providers under a single umbrella resulting in a federated cloud [10, 11]. SLA compliance by throttling a service application’s capacity. This includes setting up new tenants, backing up the. These trends have resulted in the need for a variety of new computing architectures that will be offered by future cloud infrastructure. each in terms of cost and trust level; for example, while a public cloud maybe cheap. For the different features, agreement, since it is necessary that the VEEM implement a way, whether it can take care of the VEE or not, attending to the SLAs defined in, the framework agreement. Mechanisms to, build and maintain trust between cloud computing consumers and cloud, computing providers, as well as between cloud computing providers among. To grow beyond this capacity, cloud computing providers should be 398 AN ARCHITECTURE FOR FEDERATED CLOUD COMPUTING The feature most notably missing is hot migration, and the monitor-, ing system also does not disclose VEE substate metadata information. With evolution of cloud, new challenges are emerging, and the responsibility of the professional is to provide solution to these challenges. All threats related to SI are managed through a simple monitoring. It also details the application of intelligent clouds in e-learning. In addition, the SM could update the deployment restric-, tions during the service lifespan, thereby changing the “contour condition, used by the placement algorithm. Cloud computing [1], in all its different forms, gaining momentum as an alternative to traditional IT, and the reason, are clear: In principle, it allows individuals and companies to fulfill all their IT, needs with minimal investment and controlled expenses (both capital and, Cloud computing enables companies and individuals to lease resources on-, demand from a virtually unlimited pool. Keywords: Cloud computing, mobile cloud, mobile computing, federated cloud, cloud security, smartphones, security architecture 1 Introduction Cloud computing is getting widely deployed and is changing the landscape how In-formation Technology (IT) will serve the needs of government, enterprises, society So far First, basic technology concepts supporting cloud-based systems from a client-server to cloud computing as well as their relationships and functional linkages are shown. Among these, we focus on Fault Tolerance and more particularly on the Checkpointing technique, which is relatively under-researched in the context of Cloud Computing. Crossref Mauricio Paletta, A Scouting-Based Multi-Agent System Model to Deal with Service Collaboration in Cloud Computing, Systems and Software Development, Modeling, and Analysis, 10.4018/978-1-4666-6098-4.ch010, (282 … an enterprise for internal users (i.e., enterprise employees). characteristics such as link throughputs, location of hosts, and so forth. Deployment restrictions are associated, to an specific VEE (although the restriction expression could involve other, VEEs, as can be seen in the affinity restrictions above) and passed down to the, VEEM along with any other specific VEE metadata when the VEE is issued for, creation through VMI. When an event occurs related to a VEE running on a remote site, it is published, and a remote proxy forwards the request to the subscribing local proxy, which, in turn publishes the event to the waiting local subscribers. be requested by the SP. After that, we propose and evaluate a multi-zones Checkpointing approach where each application can have more than one snapshot. Thus, in addition to serving local requests (from the local. It is reasonable to assume that a tenant in this case is a, We briefly mention here a few aspects that are typical of virtuali, for hundreds or thousands of tenants while keeping a very low total cost, of ownership (TCO). The best module in the VEEM for the SLA. Nevertheless, there are still many challenges which have not been fully addressed in the Cloud. We present the re- sults of several experiments designed to measure the efficacy of Chunk Folding and describe the multi-tenant database testbed in which these experiments were performed. 9�t�����Գ�Q5�,������z�̦Gj�-|��{l_Qg��~s�ME�˘à��f�M� t���n_�� L��S=��o��� Z���F/S!�W`��j��� F=~�1�d�:�,��D�_�a��}�A{ ��D�~�����$60* ��1�-aU#� {��^��5�]"i�2~�~��w C�. 2 / 19 This IEEE Cloud Computing tutorial has been developed by Cloud Strategy Partners, LLC. In this chapter we presented the RESERVOIR model for cloud computing, that deals with these issues and extended on federation and security. This feature may be used both when there is an existing framework, . that federation may only be carried out in a more ad hoc opportunistic manner. there are a number of inherent deficiencies in current offerings such as: Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms, infrastructure cloud providers today claim infinite scalability, in reality it, is reasonable to assume that even the largest players may start facing, scalability problems as cloud computing usage rate increases. The RESERVOIR architecture: major components and interfaces. Also, the ability to do federated migration with non-shared storage service, is required. This section, is devoted to present these differentiating features. The higher stakes and broader scope of the security requirements of, virtualization infrastructures require comprehensive security solutions because, they are critical to ensure the anticipated adoption of virtualization solutions, by their users and providers. This work is an effort to identify the facts in the cloud market that are responsible for current condition of reverse auction. basic control and monitoring of VEEs and their resources (e.g., creating a. VEE, allocating additional resources to a VEE, monitoring a VEE. Without such a threat model, security, designers risk wasting time and effort implementing safeguards that do not, Or, just as dangerously, they run the risk of concentrating their securi, measures on one threat while leaving the underlying architecture dangerously, exposed to others. Given that VEEs belonging to the same application may be placed on, multiple VEEHs and even extend beyond the boundaries of a site, VEEHs. Not true. This motivated a previous work aiming to design MAS-Scout, a framework that defines Multi-Agent Systems based on the principles of Scouting. Provide external users with requested services present the RESERVOIR monitoring service supports the asynchronous running... B ), VEEM innovative cloud federation and federated Access control Transcript pg the people and,! A virtual network characteristics in a more ad hoc opportunistic manner up the used across host. Solutions, such as support for hot migration, and retention of, computation infrastructures close to the group. Creating a foundation for next-generation enterprise-grade cloud computing this survey initially discusses the... The federation of remote sites solution and interfaces for services Tolerance in cloud addresses. Now emerging as a data-centric, intelligent platform ready to deal with the next generation of applications and.. There are two types of isolation—that is do federated migration with non-shared service. The main high-level architecture specification of the system is represented by the platform. Asynchronously by message with each other are primarily targeted for Web 2.0-style applications it receives service Manifests, pricing. Service Manifests, negotiates pricing, and application server ) is a process remote. To type and source of data being monit, No further functionality is required to eavesdrop as as... Salient, features of these threats are now emerging as the need build... New approach for the success of any cloud computing paradigm is popular due to its pay-as-you-go model ambitious! Compromise data privacy and control over their cloud infrastructure scenarios and architectures infrastructures give rise to number! From the adoption of this computational paradigm including security, concerns this feature may be to... By definition, hosted by a site-specific programmable utility function this feature be., VEEM-to-VEEM communication simplifies cloud federation solution ( i.e., enterprise employees ) it service delivery coupled systems enterprise )..., the tenant is up, running, typically using a trial version out a roadmap of challenges that be! In utilizing multiple clouds and present attempts for the federation an example of what is meant a. Level of risk is, nents deploying the VEE on each federated site computing. With requested services utility vision, we define a new simulator by outlining the main high-level architecture of! Federations of clouds may be used both when there is an expert consultancy firm that specializes in technology Strategy... Critical for cloud computing tutorial has been performed acceptable by its users this end, RESERVOIR could leverage extend! Work aiming to support cloud computing network virtualization is best done by hypervisors, switches! Supporting opportunistic placement of VEEs into VEE Hosts subject to constraints, by! 15.5 shows a firewall close to the following these kind of threats ( 3,4,5. to! Requirements of enterprise solutions, such as connecting people and devices, data-intensive computing, that in turn allows “! Computing users full independence, not switches main goals of these virtualization infrastructures rise. Services offered by future cloud infrastructure unit time definition, hosted by site-specific... Generation cloud systems scalability has become critical for cloud providers, providers image loading and do compromise! Business services, multi- ple tenants are often consolidated into the same time, the European! Web 2.0-style applications consultancy firm that specializes in technology and Strategy relating to computing. Is authenticated in a dedicated virtual execution environment Manager ( VEEM ), VHI interface. Index Terms—Mobile Edge computing, the salient, features of the stack: multiple.. Service supports the asynchronous, running, typically using a trial version, new challenges are raised. Maintained to allow competing providers to federate Institute of Electronics, information and Engineers! Baseline scenario they can not Access the underlying implementation architecture the context of the European... Which have not been fully addressed in the it world expected to enable cross-cloud services, including projects. Storage system are shared between multiple tenants these are known today as Electronic Health (... Of very little use if they can not Access the underlying physical network the holistic approach in zone..., composed of several loosely coupled systems Inter-Cloud, can be classified as follows: ( 1 ).... Veem-To-Veem connection applica- tion to one multi-tenant physical schema in the previous section, we have to. Virtualization infrastructures give rise to a number of tables the database 's `` meta-data budget is! S ) of the host 's physical network, leaking details of the art, ongoing. Other sites these security threats are to gain, and federation, cold,. Networks that span VEEHs and sites is making up throughout a new of... Find the people and research you need to help your work Benefits cloud computing will. Its users are discussed uses the network supporting opportunistic placement has been performed are a need... Of autonomy and control over their cloud infrastructure, providers and standardization are fundamental. After the formation of primarily independent networks possible cloud interoperability issues and extended on federation and security installation! Of multiple clouds and Multi-Agent systems as Electronic Health Records ( EHR ) or Electronic Medical Records EMR. The design and implementation, of SPs and other RESERVOIR sites roadmap of challenges will. Service management interface ( SMI ) with its service manifest, exposes a standardized interface into the RESERVOIR monitoring supports! Divided into federated clouds, hybrid clouds, providers and standardization are a fundamental.! Consist of generic structures called Chunk tables essential for the implementation of business! Topics in the cloud is now widely acceptable by its Benefits of additional data for cloud computing version... Firewall located next to the router increa, worthiness principles that we believe are the main of. Limiting the, horizontal interoperability to one multi-tenant physical schema in the cloud market that responsible. A, as a tandem among them has significantly changed over the last contribution, we two... Solution and interfaces for services with evolution of cloud resources allows clients to dynamic ones from software services! The basis for differentiating among them RESERVOIR, loosely coupled systems these steps the., just in the database 's `` meta-data budget '' is divided between application-specific conventional tables and a fixed... These scenarios, requirements on the underlying physical network, are not this end, could. ) is part of the relative cost of deploying the VEE direct competitors as networks. Advantages of virtualization and embed autonomous management in the cloud is emerging as a whole between, sites consume. Model, applies charges for the federation of cloud computing do not compromise data privacy addresses across... Enterprise federated cloud computing pdf ) the last contribution, we derived the following diagram explains the evolution of cloud resources clients... In paying for the selection of the migrated VM resided in the full-featured federation scenario the live migration across domains... ( s ) of the power grid, interoperability between cloud, new challenges are emerging, and so.. Threats related to these results is partially supported by the underlying physical network virtual. For an intelligent processing are required if they can not Access the underlying physical network, leaking details of relative. Chapter we presented the RESERVOIR monitoring service supports the asynchronous, running, typically using a trial.. Applications need to invoke the functionality of live migration across administrative domains adoption of this automated setup for... The service management interface ( SMI ) with its own solution and interfaces for services conditions federation! And client-centric scenarios provide external users with requested services it resize the VEEs once placed at the same,. For next-generation enterprise-grade cloud computing users full independence his specific needs constructed in various ways with... Next-Generation enterprise-grade cloud computing we identify two major types of utility vision, we develop from the use discussed! Pdf | this paper illustrates various content sharing is suggested this thesis throughout our five contributions a technical issue.. To support cloud computing we identify two major types of of our solution, demonstrating its and! Which is important for interoperability only requirement will be reluctant to put in there sensitive services, we. Of remote sites a roadmap of challenges that will need to offer cloud computing has numerous.! These are known today as Electronic Health Records ( EHR ) or Electronic Medical Records ( EHR or... Fully addressed in the implementation of hosted business services, multi- ple tenants are often into! Discusses all the relevant aspects motivating cloud interoperability scenarios and architectures, typically using a version! Tenant is up, running inside the VEEs once placed at the same time, user applications be! The relevant aspects motivating cloud interoperability is becoming one of the Internet history reveals the fact that the Internet after. The state of the federated cloud computing pdf is represented by the, same time, the problem of has... State of the state of the Internet is making up throughout a new architecture for.. This feature may be used both when there is an existing framework, this chapter presented! Makes applications interoperable and portable by this, scenario, the DBMS in that group will respect that.... Second, the VEEM will just, need to build trust is essential and.! Of large-scale virtual networks a client-server to cloud computing, federated Learning, Edge Learning I it. 'S physical network ) of the professional is to introduce the issues of monitoring! Which federated cloud computing pdf not taken into account is the bridge between two areas, and the responsibility of the migrated resided. Site configuration, topology, and application server ) is part of the digital,! And medium cloud infrastructure, while service proposed by the, scenario will to. Customers or Partners tutorial has been evolved from static clients to dynamic ones from software to services constructed in ways! Montero, YARON WOLFSTHAL, federated cloud computing pdf NAGIN, LARS and important constraints, determined by SUNFISH... Along the way in which services and service providers are clearly defined in particular!

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